Biochemistry

Distribution Of Membrane Lipids

1. Natural Fats are largely absent from cell membranes. Neutral fats such as triglycerides are found mainly in the cytoplasm and represent the major form of storage lipids. 2. Glycerphospholipids are the principal constituents of bacterial membranes. sphingolipids and cholesterol are absent. In animal cell  membranes glycerophospholipids and sphingophospholipids comprise the polar lipids, while the principal non-polar membrane lipids are neutral...

Classification Of Lipids

Classification Of Lipids  According to one scheme lipids are classified as Simple Lipids, Compound (conjugated ) Lipids and Steroids. (A) SIMPLE LIPIDS : These are esters of fatty acids with alcohols. (1) FATS are esters of fatty acids with glycerol. (2) WAXES are esters of high MW fatty acids with alcohols other than glycerol (true waxes) or with sterols (steryl esters). (B) COMPOUND LIPIDS on...

Functions Of Carbohydrates

The most important function of carbohydrates is to provide energy to the body. They are also structural components of tissues. Other functions include regulation of fat metabolism, protein sparing functions, and function in the digestive tract. Storage substances of potential energy. Carbohydrates are storage substances of potential energy in animals. About 60% of the total energy requirement of man is provided...

Classification Of Proteins- Conjugated Proteins

Conjugated Proteins consist of simple proteins in combination with some non-protein component. the non-protein groups are called prosthetic groups. Conjugated proteins include the following groups:- Nucleoproteins (Protein + nucleic acid). Nucleoproteins are proteins in combination with nucleic acids. in trout spermatozoa nucleoproteins constitute 90% of the solid material, and in certain erythrocyte nuclei almost 100%. Nucleoprotamines are combinations of nucleic acids...

Molecular Biology

Central Dogma

The central dogma of molecular biology describes the two-step process, transcription and translation, by which the information in genes flows into proteins: DNA → RNA → protein.

TRANSLATION

Translation is the process that takes the information passed from DNA as messenger RNA and turns it into a series of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds. It is essentially a translation from one code (nucleotide sequence) to another code (amino acid sequence). The ribosome is the site of this action, just as RNA polymerase was the site of...

DNA REPLICATION

DNA replication occurs in a 5'→3' direction.The first stage of DNA replication in prokaryotes is the uncoiling of the DNA double helix by the enzyme helicase. Helicase separates the DNA into two template strands. RNA primase then adds a short sequence of RNA to the template strands. This short sequence of RNA is a primer which allows DNA polymerase III...

RNA INTERFERENCE

RNAi (RNA interference) defined:RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural process that cells use to 'turn off' or silence unwanted or harmful genes. The initial discovery of this phenomenon was in 1991, by scientists trying to deepen the colour of petunias. Surprisingly, by introducing a gene for colour, they found that they had turned off the gene.   The process:Several years after...

Analytical Techniques

TYPES OF CHROMATOGRAPHY

The different types of chromatography are: Column Chromatography Paper Chromatography Thin Layer Chromatography Gas Chromatography High Performance Liquid Chromatography Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Affinity Chromatography Reversed Phase Chromatography Two Dimensional Chromatography Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography and Counter Current Chromatography.

CENTRIFUGATION

Centrifugation Definition-Have you ever wondered how they separate skim milk from whole milk? Or how your washing machine is able to get the majority of water out of your clothes? Or how, during a blood test, the hospital is able to separate out the different pieces that make up your blood?Well, the answer to all of these life mysteries is...

WHAT IS ELECTROPHORESIS & ITS PRINCIPLE

The term Electrophoresis means Electro=electric field + Phoresis=migration. So as the name indicates,“electrophoresis is a method of separation where in charged molecules migrate in differential speeds in an applied electric field.“The charged molecules under the influence of electric field migrate towards oppositely charged electrodes.Those molecules with +ve charge move towards cathode and -ve molecules move towards Anode. The migration is...

Plant Biotechnology

Types Of Plastids

There are two main groups of plastids, the chromoplasts and the leucoplasts. The chromoplasts contain pigment, while the...

Significance of Photosynthesis

The significance of photosynthesis is described as under. (1) It is the primary source of organic food and food energy ...

Pollination

The transference of the pollen grains from the anthers to the stigma is known as pollination. Importance of Pollination...

Environmental Biotechnology

Pollution

Any undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our environment i.e. air, water and so...

Prevention and Control of Water Pollution

the biodegradable pollutants may be controlled at source by their treatment for reuse and recycling. The non-biodegradab...

BIOFERTILIZERS

Biofertilizer' is a substance which contains living microorganism which, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, ...

Animal Biotechnology

Types Of Cancer

Cancer is not one single disease but a complex of many diseases. About two hundred  distinct types of cancer have been r...

What Is Cancer

Cell division is a normal process in multi-cellular organisms. Growth and repair (replacement of dead cells) take place ...

Significance Of Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis as a form of reproduction has established itself in a wide variety of organisms, both plants and animals...

Genetic Engineering

Genes Associated With Genetic Diseases

In December 1993, a team of International Scientists at French Academy of Sciences, Paris developed the world's first ma...

Some Important Enzymes and Their Role in Replication

Name of the Enzyme Role in DNA Replication 1. Endonuclease (incision enzyme) Causes nick (break) in the DNA...

What is Test Cross or Back Cross

 The definition of Test Cross or Back Cross is as under:- Test cross is a simple method devised by Mendel to verify the...

Bioprocess Engineering

USE OF MICROBES IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

Here are several types of industrial processes where...

STAGES OF BIOPROCESSING

A bioprocess is any process that uses complete...

BIOREACTORS

STIRRED TANK FERMENTER Microbial fermentations received prominence during 1940's...

Food Biotech

MUSHROOM PRODUCTION

Commercial mushroom growing starts with the production of...

METHODS OF FOOD PRESERVATION

Drying is the oldest method of food preservation...

MICROBIAL FOOD SPOILAGE

What is food spoilage? Food spoilage means the original...

IPR

The Protection Of Plant Varieties & Farmers' Rights Authority

The Act establishes an Authority to be known...

Impacts Of IPR On Biodiversity

It is simply a tough task to offer...

Bioprospecting And Biopiracy

Biodiversity prospecting is the exploration, extraction and screening...

Microbiology

Antibiotics

Substances competing for the active site of an...

VIRUS STRUCTURE

The protein layer that surrounds and protects the...

TYPES OF CULTURE MEDIA

Media are of different types on consistency and...

Cell Bio

Significance of Mitosis

Significance of Mitosis can be summarized as under. 1...

Significance of Cell Cycle

Significance of Cell Cycle can be  summarized as...

Classification of Amino Acids

CLASSIFICATION OF AMINO ACIDS On the basis of their...

Immunology

Nature Of Viruses

Viruses are infective micro-organisms that show several differences...

Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter

Points To Remember  The fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) was...

Enzyme Immunoassay

Points To Remember The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is of...

Enzymology

HOW ENZYMES WORK?

Enzymes are biological molecules (typically proteins) that significantly...

CO-FACTOR & CO-ENZYME

Cofactors-The first type of enzyme partner is a...

ENZYME IMMOBILIZATION

What is enzyme immobilization? Immobilization is defined as the...

Recombinant DNA Technology

Application Of DNA Chips

The DNA chips are used in many areas...

Application Of DNA Profiling (DNA Fingerprinting) Technology

1. Setting up of Genetic Databank: Realising the...

WHAT IS BT COTTON?

What is Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)? Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt)...