The DNA chips are used in many areas as given below
- Identification of tissue specific genes. Tissue specific genes such as insulin gene in pancreas are identified.
- Discovery of drugs: The new drugs are discovered for treatment of certain diseases like cancer that interact and combine with suitable altered genes. i.e. oncogenes.
- Diagnostics and genetic mapping: DNA chips have been prepared to identify mutation/multiple mutations e.g. CFTR (cyctic fibrosis), BRCA-1(cancer susceptible gene), β-thalassemia mutations in patients, genotyping of hepatitis C virus in blood samples.
- Proteomics (study of protein-protein interaction) By using genomic sequence information, protein linkage maps can be prepared.
- Functional genomics: Gene expression is analysed by microarrays that provides an important basis for functional genomics.
- DNA sequencing DNA chips were used in gene sequencing during 1988 by hybridising the immobalised oligomers (8 mers) with unknown DNA segments whose sequences are to be determined. Then the hybridisation patterns are determined by several devices.
- Agricultural biotechnology The expression patterns of agricultural crops or transgenic plants under the different environmental conditions can be analysed by using DNA chips. It is also used to study the DNA polymorphisms when molecular marker-assisted selection is to be studied.